Iron Ore & Pellets

Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. Iron ore pellets are to be used as raw material for blast furnaces.

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Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material, as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints.

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Silica Sand

Silica sand is the most commonly used sand because of its great abundance.It is made by either crushing sandstone or taken from natural occurring locations.

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Clinker & Cement

Cement manufacturers purchasing clinker usually grind it as an addition to their own clinker at their cement plants. They also ship clinker to grinding plants in areas where cement-making raw materials are not available.

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Products - Iron Ore

Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in color from dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple, to rusty red.
Iron-rich rocks are common worldwide, but ore-grade commercial mining operations are dominated by the countries listed in the table aside. The major constraint to economics for iron ore deposits is not necessarily the grade or size of the deposits, because it is not particularly hard to geologically prove enough tonnage of the rocks exist. The main constraint is the position of the iron ore relative to market, the cost of rail infrastructure to get it to market and the energy cost required to do so.

Mining iron ore is a high volume low margin business, as the value of iron is significantly lower than base metals. It is highly capital intensive, and requires significant investment in infrastructure such as rail in order to transport the ore from the mine to a freight ship. For these reasons, iron ore production is concentrated in the hands of a few major players.
Over the last 40 years, iron ore prices have been decided in closed-door negotiations between the small handful of miners and steelmakers which dominate both spot and contract markets. Traditionally, the first deal reached between these two groups sets a benchmark to be followed by the rest of the industry.